The Arlanzón Valley has been an ideal setting for human settlers since the beginning of time, as evidenced by, the Atapuerca Archeological Site, considered the birthplace of the European. The human remains found in the area are over 800,000 years old. In this area, bordering the River, there used to be Pre-Roman settlements as well.
The first bits of information we can find about Burgos as a city go back to the year 884, when it is believed that the Count Diego Rodriguez Porcelos founded it under the orders of King Alfonso III. The Kings’ intentions were to establish a fortress in order to stop the enemy’s advance, the Saracens.
The city’s geographical situation,at the crossroad of major routes and at the centre of the Trail of St. James, facilitated its speedy growth. In the X century, Burgos was already a relevant city of Castilla and a vital key piece in the Renaissance. Important figures in those days were Fernán Gómez y Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, the Cid Campeador(the most popular son of Burgos around the Globe).
The XI century brings with it a downfall in the military relevance of the city, which begins to shine for its trade thanks to the Trail of St. James and its connection with the Northern Ports. In 1075, Burgos becomes the Religious Capital, which facilitated the construction of Monasteries.
In the XIII Century, the old Roman Cathedral is taken down and the construction of the current Cathedral begins in 1221. It is an outstanding Gothic element in the city and one of the most beautiful cathedrals around the World.The Huelgas Reales Monastery is also built around the same time.
The Golden Days of Burgos were the XV and XVI centuries, during the reign of the Catholic Kings. A variety of great palaces were built, such as the Casa Del Cordón. During those days, the city reaches 25,000 citizens, Despite this boom and mainly due to the new trade established with the New World. Burgos loses a lot of its relevance by 1575. Halfway through the XVII century, the Plague and famine take the number of citizens down to 4,500.
In the XVIII Century, the city shows signs of improvement and by the XIX Century, after the occupation of the city by the French: Burgos begins to acquire its current geography and stature. In the XX century the first industries begin to appear in the city and in the 60’s, the city’s’ industrial area is created, basically bringing the city back to life.